Dr. Sachs became a member of forces with colleagues from the Palo Alto Center for Pulmonary Disease Avoidance in Palo Alto, CA and St. Helena Hospital in Napa, CA, to recognize if there had been a true change in nicotine dependence in the last 15 years. Helena Hospital Middle for a Smoke-Free Lifestyle , n=204, february 2005 through October 2006 enrolled. The evaluation showed that pretreatment FTQ ratings improved by 12 % over the 15-year study period: 1989 , 6.72; 1994 , 7.80; and 2006 , 7.80. Also, the proportion of patients with a high FTQ score increased 32 % from 1989 to 2006: NPS, 55.5 %; BSRS, 65.5 %; and CSFL, 73.0 %.Multiple specific transformants were reisolated, and Sanger sequencing was performed to confirm the presence or lack of the predicted variant and to quantify the amount of mosaicism. S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). After synonymous and common variants have been filtered and excluded, 57 rare, protein-altering variants were within 50 persons, including 35 variants with an alternate-allele read frequency greater than 40 percent and 22 variants with an alternate-allele read regularity of 40 percent or lower.