Paul R. Mouncey, M.Sc ed ., Tiffany M. Osborn, M.D., G. Sarah Power, M.Sc., David A. Harrison, Ph.D., M. Zia Sadique, Ph.D., Richard D. Grieve, Ph.D., Rahi Jahan, B.A., Sheila E. Harvey, Ph.D., Derek Bell, M.D., Julian F. Bion, M.D., Timothy J. Coats, M.D., Mervyn Singer, M.D., J. Duncan Small, D.M., and Kathryn M. Rowan, Ph.D. For the ProMISe Trial Investigators: Trial of Early, Goal-Directed Resuscitation for Septic Shock The incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults is estimated to range from 56 to 91 per 100,000 population each year.1 Affected individuals have high prices of death, complications, and resource utilization.2-5 Since 2002, the Surviving Sepsis Marketing campaign has promoted best practice, including early recognition, source control, appropriate and timely antibiotic administration, and resuscitation with intravenous liquids and vasoactive drugs.6-8 Resuscitation guidance is basically based on a 2001 single-center, proof-of-concept study by Rivers et al., which indicated that protocolized delivery of 6 hours of early, goal-directed therapy to individuals presenting to the crisis division with early septic shock reduced hospital mortality and medical center stay.

It is unclear what motivated the guest editors to engage in such fraud, nor offers it been determined whether the authors of the manuscripts included participated in the deception in any way. There are several lessons to be learned from these cases of peer-reviewer and peer-review fraud. One is normally that the electronic manuscript-handling systems that most journals make use of are as vulnerable to exploitation and hacking as other data systems. Moon and Chen, for instance, both abused a feature of ScholarOne: the e-mail messages delivered to scholars inviting them to examine a manuscript consist of log-in information, and whoever receives those messages can sign into the system.